The preparatory work which occurs during the dooperatsionalny period, consists in development of ability of the child to imagine things. The following step consists in its interiorization. Thus there is a thought. But generally symbolical actions are connected with concrete subjects – from here and the name: period of concrete operations.
Operations it is actions, which source – physical actions of the sensomotorny period, but actions of very general character. Operation cannot exist in itself, but only in the ordered system of operations. Thus the following conditions are satisfied:
It is rather easy to notice these changes in behavior of the child. At the same time, as Piaget believes, there is even more important change, but it cannot be observed directly. Piaget claims that at first the child is not capable to carry out distinction among themselves and other world. Originally the child does not know about existence of that - or out of himself and by that does not know and about own existence. The child is absolutely egocentric.
This emphasis on activity characterizes all reasonings of Piaget. The living being not simply reacts, it, besides, also makes action. Adaptation is not reduced to passive changes under the influence of the circumstances compelling to it, such as, the dough form changes if to squeeze it in a hand. The living being needs to keep the structure. Therefore one of aspects of biological adaptation is such influence on Wednesday at which it is brought into accord with the existing structure of an organism, Wednesday in a sense joins in it. In literal sense inclusion happens, for example, when the animal digests food. This aspect of process of adaptation received at Piaget the name assimilation.
It is important to understand that Piaget's attention is not concentrated on nature of individual distinctions and, therefore, he is not engaged in that usually understand as testing of intelligence. Piaget wants to open and explain how there is a normal development of the person. He is convinced that normal process exists, i.e., there is a sequence of stages through which, though with a different speed, all pass people, and one pass on this way further others. (M. Donaldson).
It is considered that the sequence of stages is identical to all children. The reason of it not that the order is programmed, or it is completely determined, maturing process, and that each subsequent stage is built on over the previous. That is why earlier educations are necessary for emergence of the subsequent. If a sequence of stages same for all children, transition speed, of course, the different.
According to Piaget's theory as criterion of functioning of operation features of performance by the child of such tasks as the test for preservation, or the test for inclusion in a set serve. For example, when the child draws conclusions about an invariance of quantity of some set of subjects, despite the made changes in their spatial arrangement, it is considered that his reasonings are based on understanding of opportunity again to come back to an initial arrangement of subjects simply at the expense of the address of movements which led to this change. Therefore, his thinking is reversible.
The period of concrete operations (of 18 months to 11let) – this stage is divided into two subperiods. During the first which is called dooperatsionalny and lasts approximately till 7 years, there is a preparation of concrete operations, during the second concrete operations are formed and fixed.
It is clear, however that process of assimilation in itself could not serve as an effective remedy. That the animal successfully adapted, it has to change the behavior, considering properties of subjects and phenomena with which he should deal. The animal, for example, drinks liquid, but to assimilate firm products, it has to chew them. That is why assimilation never meets in pure form, it is always counterbalanced at least by one component of accommodation. Accommodation represents such influence at which the behavior of an organism is brought into accord with Wednesday, thus, these two processes are opposite directed, but complemented.